For touchscreen mobile devices like smartphones and tablets, such as Android, an open-source mobile operating system was developed. It is predicated on a customized Linux kernel. Android was developed by a group of developers called the Open Handset Alliance with funding from Google. After being unveiled in November 2007, the HTC Dream, the first commercial Android handset, made its debut in September 2008.
Proprietary versions of Android predominate. The primary components are from the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), a free and open-source software (FOSS) initiative that is primarily protected under the Apache License. The ability to modify other FOSS software is often constrained when Android is installed on a device. The installed version is proprietary because the source code is either hidden or reinstallation is technically impossible. The majority of Android handsets ship with additional pre-installed proprietary software, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS), which is made up of necessary apps like Google Chrome, the online store Google Play, and the associated Google Play Services development platform.
Android versions 1.0 to 1.1: The Initial Release
In 2008, Android made its official entrance into the world with the release of version 1.0, which was so old it lacked an entertaining codename.
Early Google apps like Gmail, Maps, Calendar and YouTube were all included in the program; however, they were all embedded into the operating system, as opposed to today’s more easily updatable standalone-app paradigm. Back then, things were rather simple, although the software did include them.
Android version 1.5: Cupcake
With the introduction of Android 1.5 Cupcake in early 2009, the custom of giving Android versions names started. One of the changes made to the Android interface by Cupcake was the introduction of the first on-screen keyboard, which was crucial as smartphones moved away from the once-dominant physical keyboard format.
The framework for third-party app widgets, which would soon become one of Android’s most unique features, was also included in Cupcake, along with the first video recording option ever added to the platform.
Android’s 1.6 version: Donut
Android 1.6, often known as Donut, was released in the fall of 2009. Donut filled in certain critical holes in Android’s basic functionality, such as the operating system’s ability to run on a variety of various screen sizes and resolutions, which would be essential in the years to come. Additionally, it added support for CDMA networks, including Verizon, which was essential given the predicted explosion in Android device sales.
Android Froyo, version 2.2
Google released Android 2.2, also known as Froyo, four months after Android 2.1 went live, with the main focus being on performance improvements starting with the kernel.
The first version of Voice Actions, which let you perform common tasks like getting directions and taking notes by tapping an icon and then speaking a command, was also introduced with Froyo. Nevertheless, it did bring about a number of significant front-facing features that are now standard, such as the dock at the bottom of the home screen and Voice Actions.
Notably, Android’s web browser now supports Flash thanks to Froyo. Given the popularity of Flash at the time and Apple’s adamant refusal to provide Flash compatibility on its own mobile devices, this was a huge inclusion. Naturally, Apple would win out in the end, and Flash would become far less common. The ability to browse the full web without running into any black holes, though, was a true advantage that only Android could offer when the internet was still widely accessible.